n though the laws of the state do not fully respect or protect human rights, every citizen of the state can automatically imbibe the spirit of human rights.
The concept of HR, evolved as an outcome of the civilized society, is guided by the principle of natural rights. The very concept of HR as a fundamental right supersedes all the state laws that ignore the significance of human beings. Human beings are naturally entitled to such rights as can be applied for the protection of inherent abilities, traits, and qualities essential to making human life meaningful. HR, a collective expression of common and fundamental rights of all the people of the world, are considered indispensable, natural and inherent rights. Hence, HR are regarded as universal, indivisible and inalienable. There is a universal notion that these rights should not be violated by any group or organization of the state.
Human rights are respected and protected only in a democracy. Democracy and human rights are synonymous. In the absence of one or the other, both do not exist. Without democratic governance, human rights are inconceivable and without respect for human rights, democracy cannot thrive. A peaceful society cannot be established without proper resthepect f–or and protection of both human rights and democracy. The concept of HR has not evolved suddenly in modern human civilization. Along with the evolution of human civilization, it has also been evolving gradually. The first credit for the development of HR goes to the Magna Carta- the Charter of British Civil Rights. In 1215 AD, in world history, there was a written agreement between King John of Britain and the people about the division of power. The agreement mentioned the rights of the people. The same agreement, called the Magna Carta, is considered to be the first written human rights document. The Magna Carta clearly stated that parliament had the power to make laws, that the king could not impose any taxes without the approval of parliament, and that there should be an independent judiciary and the supremacy of law.
After a long struggle between the king and the people of Britain, a document called the ‘Bill of Rights’ was issued in 1689 to define and limit the rights of the king. This is considered to be the first social agreement between the king and the people. In 1776 AD, the United States of America also issued the “Declaration of American Independence incorporating the fundamental principles of the British ‘Bill of Rights’. Similarly, in pursuance of the belief that every human being has the right to freedom and self-determination, French Revolution was accomplished in 1779, and the basic concept of human rights was developed based on the declaration of the rights of man and citizen eventually passed by the French National Assembly in 1789.
The League of Nations was formally established on January 10, 1920, to dispel the fear that the HR would be endangered as a result of the growing animosity and rivalry among nations despite significant international efforts towards HR development in the eighteenth century. It incorporated the policies of nondiscrimination, irrespective of race, religion, language or gender. However, all the past efforts towards the achievement of HR and peace were rendered futile in the wake of the two world wars – World War I and World War II from 1914 to 1918 and from 1939 to 1945 respectively.
All human beings are responsible for, and need to ensure equal participation in, the peaceful development of human civilization.
Everyone has the responsibility to respect and honor each other’s rights. In recognition of the need for a global organization to lead the world community for embracing and upholding